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Introductory computer science courses need to cover fundamental concepts and terminology as well as algorithmic skills.
One way to accommodate these demands is to employ problem-based assignments as a vehicle for the programming content.
An assignment is discussed in which students must develop a blackjack application in both Excel and Mathematica.
Common solutions are considered in relation to general problem-solving strategies, and the assignments are contrasted with full-semester problem-based learning approaches.
One way to accommodate th ese demands is to employ prob lem-base d assignments as a vehicle for the pro gramming content.
An assignment is discussed in which students must develop a blackjack application in both Excel and Mathemat ica.
Comm on solutions are considered in relation to general problem-solving str ategies, and the assignments are con trasted with full-semest er As in many fields, un dergraduate students entering the fields of Com puter Science, Computer Information Systems, Information Technologyetc.
How ever, computational fields are perhaps a bit unique in that an introduction to the disciplin e should include an exposure to some of the basic skills i.
This is not to suggest, of course, that there are not many other fields which must develop important specialized skill -set s, but oftentimes that training can be concentrated in subsequent upper-level course s, after the student has some basic familiarity with the scope of the field itself.
In CS fields, though, programming concepts are fundamental enough that they cannot be separated fro m a descriptive This, then, presents a challenge for introductory CS courses.
It can be difficult to present algorithmic techniques without additional and time-intensive expla nation of programming syntax.
Conversel y, traditional textbook coverage of p rogrammi ng co ncep ts e.
Thi s suggests that the timing of course content might be as important as th e content itself; there is a synergy inh erent in the coordination of prog ramming projects w ith accompanying programm ing concepts.
Such an approach is consistent with the problem -based learning PBL It is also the case, however, that prog ramming is only on e topic within a general in troductory course.
A su rvey course is not intended to take t he place of a first course in programming, and it would not suites international 5* efficient to duplicate the amount of effort that it takes to fully immerse a student into a traditional programming environment i.
Therefore, projects within a more general course should be manageable within a few weeks and should probably be developed in a high-enough level environm ent to keep the focus on algorithmic issues rather than syntactic str ucture.
At the sa me time, the projects should be challeng ing, and hopefully relevant In particular, the environm ent should be accessible to students if they are to have any hope of working on their own.
There are two obvious possibilitie s for this: it could b e an environment that is in some way alread y familiar to the students; or it could be an environment that is sufficie ntly user -friendly, and with a sufficiently transparent help system, to be usable with a minimum of introductio n.
Each of these possibilities has its o wn benefits and The projects described here are us ed within a freshman-level co urse entitled Computer Information Systems Survey of Computer Information Systems.
T he course is intende d to capture CIS majors in their first - semester freshman year, to introduce them to their chosen field of study and al so to provide an overview of topics that will be covered in greater depth later in their underg raduate career.
The projects are ass igned to pairs of students, and consist of the implementation of a simple interactive blackjack ga me.
The assignment is given twice; Blackjack was chosen for this assignment for a v ariety of r easons: it is familiar to t he majority of students; for hand blackjack surrender students, there is an int rinsic interest in games, so there is more motivation than for an arbitrary assignment; the basic rules of blackjack are fairly si mple compared to many other games; and there are a number of additional rules that can be implemented which extend the complexity of the game.
The assignment is to implement a system which will play the part of the dealer in a blackjack game.
It should be able to deal the cards fro check this out a deck to both itself and to the player, each getting one card u p showing and one card down hidden.
The player, seeing both of his or her cards and th e dealer's up card, then decides to stand k eep the hand as is or h it take another card.
If th e These rules provide a challenging but solvable tas k for the students.
They must find continue reading wa y to represent the basic aspects of the problem -space, including the deck and the separate hands, and must also navigate t he logic of determining a w inner, since there are multiple w ays to win a hand and multiple wa ys to lose.
As suming they successfully implement the simple version of the game, there are some additional potential featu res: In general, face cards are w orth 10 points each, aces are w orth 11 points, and all other cards are worth their Since blackjack is a gambling game, it is useful to be ab le to monitor a series of games within a single playing session, so that bets can be placed on each and winnin gs and loss es ca n be tracked against a virtual account.
The net effect of these rules is that students can work in a modular fashion, first solving and troubleshooting the core problems and then blackjack crossword clue oving on to additional features.
It is a lso the case that the initial step of defining the problem-space greatly affects the w ay in which alm ost all other decisions are m ade, so they must spend some tim e trying and rejecting various possible strate gies before proceeding to the logic of hitting and standing.
T hus, it is a good exercise in g eneral problem-solving.
The assignments are given to grou ps of two to encourag e sharing of The first blackjack assignment is given within Excelmostl y because the st udents all have a fair degree of familiarity with it; they are able to begin working with a minimum of introduction.
However, there is a significant students must invent ways to represent features of the problem.
A co mmon solution is to list the opinion, house edge blackjack switch criticising card values in the deck within a column.
T o rando mly deal from the deck, a rando m cell address can be generated in order to reference a card value.
However, this method makes it difficult to keep track of the cards that have alread y been dealt i.
A diff erent method, which more directly m odels the act of shuffling, is to use a second column, consisting of randomly-generated numbers.
The two columns can then be sorted on the basis of the random column, and dealing simply consists o f progressively referencing the card column In the absence of an obvious output format in Excelthere are t wo diff erent types of inte rfaces to which students gravitate.
One is to use the standard spreadsheet view of columns and rows, using some form of formula filling as the mechanism for dealing additional cards.
An example o f this is shown in Figure 1.
An alternative i s to build a graphical interface within the spreadsheet, such as i n Figure 2.
Note that, in this case, the grap hics are created from ordinary spreadsheet elements using backgroun d colors, symbols, cell dimensions, justification, etc.
The unspecified nature of the assignment lends itsel f to discovery of for mats and features In general, the guiding principle is to assign the task first and th en provide feedback a nd infor mation as stu dents determine for themselves that they need it, rather than to attempt to provide the relevant information first as a disconnected lecture.
S tudents try out di fferent ideas as they work, and learn important techniques such as absolu te and relative referencing, conditional for matting, use of specialized functions, and ma cros.
More significantly, though, th ey learn about problem-solving strategies and th e value of choosing appropriate tools for a giv en task.
Students find that working with Mathematica gives an opposite pattern of advant ages and disadvantages.
Unlike Excelthey have typically had no exposure to Mathematicaso ever ything about the syntax and user interface is brand new.
However, they realize, after having tried to imple ment complex logical conditions in Excelt he value of having a true programming environment at their disposal.
Therefore th ey are able to avoid getting too distracted by the syntax, and can focus on th eir goal of solving the problem.
Mathematica also has a few adva ntages as an introductory platform ; it uses a functional language in which the parameters are listed very similarly to Excelit doesn't require initial declarations or type identificatio n of variables, and the help system is fairly robust.
AdditionallyMathematica has a natural langu age processing feature that is unique among scientific co mputing to replace the text with the appropriate structured command.
Even if the translation doesn't produce th e intended result, this can be a helpful way f or students to explore the environment and learn about the syn tax.
Mathematica also has a rich set o f interactive control el ements which students o ften incorporate into their buttons or similar controls to randomize and systematical ly sample fro m the list.
The output is so metimes textual, but students also may use grap hical representations of cards, as shown in Fig.
One of the benefits of the assignment is that many students develop multi-dimensional arrays, with card names, values, suits, and potentially images stored in parallel.
This f orces them to learn how to index and address th e dimensions appropriately.
With in the context of their blackjack programthese concepts are learned organically and without difficulty, whereas a n Overall, the blackjack assignments offer a compelling example of the value pokerstars blackjack online con text when learning a new skill.
How ever, these assignments certainly contai n many of the fundament al characteris tics of PBL.
Motivation is ty pically much higher on the blackjack assignments than on other tasks, w ith students often lingering after class to ask follow-up que stions or to ask for specific examples.
They also work more independently in terms of finding information from help s ystems and online resources, and are usually very willing to share new tips and techni ques with fellow class mates.
As a result, read article le arn more efficiently and seem to develop a better comprehension of concepts e.
I n this class, the goal is less about specific progra mming skill than general problem-solving skills, so the ability to compare and contrast implementations in Excel and Mathematica is valuable.
T blackjack hit me is no better way to appreciate the scope of a particular tool than to try to use it for a task it was not designed for, as student s soon learn when struggling with multiple logical co nditions in Exce l.
For all of these reasons, the problem-based component has been an extremely bene blackjack hit me aspect to the survey course.
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Summary We, as one of the sports consultants commissioned by the Singapore National Olympic Council, will be presenting our Training Program to plan to nurture Singaporeans in the field of Swimming 100m Freestyle.
In this proposal, we will include the physics behind the sports, recommended diet, some forms of physical aids as well as an estimation of the cost of the entire Training Program.
With the decrease of student enrollment in Computer Science and Information Systems programs, we need to change the way we deliver first-year computer programming curricula.
Introductory courses have the potential to attract and to retain students.
This session will describe the use of Problem Based Learning PBL and game design in an introduction to programming course.
The course is divided into three parts with approximately five weeks each: 1 introduction to Programming, 2 introduction to Object-Oriented programming and Graphical Unit Interface GUI programming, and 3 the final project, which includes the design and implementation of a computer game.
The computer language used in the course is JAVA.
The course is designed with Problem Base Learning to incentive students' creativity and learning.
The course provides the students with opportunities to engage in problem solving, team discussions, collaborative work, and critical thinking.
In addition, the students are challenged to identify and find solutions to their programming problems.
This approach should help to prepare students to enter in a field that is rapidly changing, and where they will be required to constantly learn new things and to take initiative.
The session will present some samples of class assignments and final projects as well as a summary of the survey conducted with students enrolled in the course.
The foundation courses in Computer Science pose particular challenges for teacher and learner alike.
This paper describes some of these challenges and how we have designed Problem-Based Learning PBL courses to address them.
We discuss the particular problems we were keen to overcome: the pure technical focus of many courses; the problems of individual learning and the need to establish foundations in a range of the areas which are important for computer science gradu-ates.
We then outline our course design, showing how we have created Problem-Based Learning courses.
The paper reports our evaluations of the approach.
This has two parts:assessment of a trial, with a three-year longitudinal follow up of the students; reports of student learning improvements after we had become experienced with full implementation of PBL.
We go here with a summary of our experience over three years of PBL teaching and discuss some of the pragmatic issues of introducing the radical change in teaching, maintaining staff support and continuing refinement of our PBL teaching.
We also discuss some of our approaches to the commonly acknowledged challenges of PBL teaching.
Problem-based approaches to learning have a long history of advocating experience-based education.
Psychological research and theory suggests that by having students learn through the experience of solving problems, they can learn both content and thinking strategies.
Problem-based learning PBL is an instructional method in which students learn through facilitated problem solving.
In PBL, student learning centers on a complex problem that does not have a single correct answer.
Students work in collaborative groups to identify what they need to learn in order to solve a problem.
They engage in self-directed learning SDL and then apply their new knowledge to the problem and reflect on what they learned and the effectiveness of the blackjack hit me employed.
The teacher acts to facilitate the learning process rather than to provide knowledge.
The goals of PBL include helping students develop 1 flexible knowledge, 2 effective problem-solving skills, 3 SDL skills, 4 effective collaboration skills, and 5 intrinsic motivation.
This article discusses the nature of learning in PBL and examines the empirical evidence supporting it.
There is considerable research on the first 3 goals of PBL but little on the last 2.
Moreover, minimal research has been conducted outside medical and gifted education.
Understanding how these goals are achieved with less skilled learners is an important part of a research agenda for PBL.
The evidence suggests that PBL is an instructional approach that offers the potential to help students develop flexible understanding and lifelong learning skills.
The present study is part of acomprehensive research project with the generalaims of comparing how problem-based learning isrealised in three different professionaleducational programmes.
The specific aims ofthis study are to describe and analyse howstudents in the three different programmesconceive of the meaning of problem-basedlearning and how they experience their studieswithin a problem-based learning programme.
ThePBL programmes are a Bachelor's programme inPhysiotherapy, a Master's programme inPsychology, and a Master's programme inComputer Engineering.
The results reveal differencesin how the students in the three programmesconceive of their autonomy as learners,co-operation with their counterparts and theauthenticity of the learning task.
The findingspossibly also reflect the taken-for-grantedperspectives of knowledge, embedded in thecultures of the professional practices and thescientific disciplines to which the programmespertain.
While much work has been done on the lab component of the CS1 course, programming assignments have not received as much attention.
Many CS1 courses have a blackjack hit me of programming assignments that supplement the lab component.
However, the assignments are often unrelated to each other.
While the advantages of semester project for upper division courses are well known, little has been done on the use of a semester project in the first programming course.
However, it is feasible for a first semester programmer to complete an entire semester project if it is designed properly.
The development of a semester-long programming project done in phases has many benefits to offer a CS1 course.
The fundamental principle behind Problem-based Learning PBL is that the problem is the driving force that initi- ates the learning.
In order to function eectively in a PBL environment a good set of problems is required.
Solving problems is a vital element within Computer Science and yet the discipline has been slow to embrace PBL as an ap- proach to learning.
The net result means that there are few good PBL problems available to assist new practitioners with implementation.
PBL emphasizes a real-world approach to learning, and we present a RoboCode Competition as a can- didate for a good, realistic PBL problem within the computer science discipline.
We list and identify the criteria that cat- egorise a PBL problem as good and validate the RoboCode domain against these criteria.
We argue that the concept of freedom — in dierent guises — plays a key role in making PBL a good mechanism for teaching programming, and for making RoboCode a good domain for PBL.
The effects of problem-based learning PBL were examined by conducting a meta-analysis-type review of the English-language international literature from 1972 to 1992.
Compared with conventional instruction, PBL, as suggested by the findings, is more nurturing and enjoyable; PBL graduates perform as well, and sometimes better, on clinical examinations and faculty evaluations; and they are more likely to enter family medicine.
Further, faculty tend to enjoy teaching using PBL.
However, PBL students in a few instances scored lower on basic sciences examinations and viewed themselves as less well prepared in the basic sciences than were their conventionally trained counterparts.
PBL graduates tended to engage in backward reasoning rather than the forward reasoning experts engage in, and there appeared to be gaps in their cognitive knowledge base that could affect practice outcomes.
The costs of PBL may slow its implementation in schools with class sizes larger than 100.
While weaknesses in the criteria used to assess the outcomes of PBL and check this out weaknesses in study design limit the confidence one can give conclusions drawn from the literature, the authors recommend that caution be exercised in making comprehensive, curriculum-wide conversions to PBL until more is learned about 1 the extent to which faculty should direct see more throughout medical training, 2 PBL methods that are less costly, 3 cognitive-processing weaknesses shown by PBL students, and 4 the apparent high resource utilization by PBL graduates.
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An ability to function on a multidisciplinary team is a required student learning outcome.
Two aspects related to this requirement include functioning on a team and multidisciplinary work.
Clarity in measuring these two aspects is critical.
Therefore, two complementary measures assessing teamwork in multidisciplinary team projects were tested among students in a semester-long multidisciplinary project.
These measures include click the following article peer evaluation instrument to assess contributions of each team member and a project specific teamwork evaluation instrument to assess multidisciplinary interaction and implementation.
The results of these instruments are reported in this paper Learning management systems have come a long way since Sir Isaac Pitman initiated the first correspondence course in the early 1840s.
Today, the demands of globalization call for new and innovative learning systems for enhancing graduate management education.
One approach for meeting these challenges is through the increased use of learning management systems, in general, and conditional release technologies CRTin particular.
The primary aim of CRTs is to distribute knowledge in small and more management learning packages based on student performance and characteristics.
Intelligent tutors provide the vehicle for helping identify the appropriate material.
The purpose of this paper is to highlight new developments in the use of CRTs and intelligent tutors in a program of graduate management education.
Vehicle engineering major includes mechanical engineering, structural engineering, transportation engineering, etc.
This paper introduces problems of traditional vehicle engineering teaching.
At last, a method of training vehicle engineering innovative application talents is introduced.
In September 2003, the Mercedes Car Group set another milestone by introducing the fifth generation of automatic transmissions developed and manufactured in-house since 1960.
The world's first 7-speed automatic transmission 7G-TRONIC is featured in the Mercedes-Benz S, SL, CL and E-Classes with V8 gasoline engines.
Deduced from the demands of the requirement specifications, the 5-speed automatic transmission was decisively improved; the result is a clear increase in spontaneity, agility, fuel economy, and driving comfort for the customer.
And because of the harmony between the vehicle and its powertrain, excellent results in the areas of performance, reduced emissions, comfort, and acoustics are obtained.
How to Signal a Hit, Stand, Split, and Double Down - Learn Blackjack
In this casino guide, blackjack for beginners, you'll get the basic. Hit: Maybe you've seen someone playing blackjack in a movie say “hit me.
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